Timarchus the Woman

Aeschines calling Timarchus a woman in court demonstrates how unfit he was to be a speaker in the Athenian assembly. At court, Aeschines describes how a man and woman are robbing the Athenians, but when the courtroom shows confusion, he states, “Don’t you understand what I’m saying? The man is Hegesander over there… the woman is Timarchus here” (Aeschines, Against Timarchus, 111). By calling Timarchus a woman, Aeschines implies that Timarchus generally has a passive role and is dominated by Hegesander. Timarchus is incapable of leading himself and has to follow Hegesander, similar to how a woman would have to follow her husband. In addition, John J. Winkler supports this idea of a womanly man in his work. Wrinkler states that a “‘woman’ is not only the opposite of a man; she is also potentially threatening ‘internal emigre’ of masculine identity. The constrast between hoplite and kinaidos is a contrast between a manly male and womanly male…” (Winkler 1989, 50). Wrinkler defines a hoplite as a citizen, soldier, and someone willing to protect their homes, while a kinaidos is a man who is focused on his own pleasure and is more effeminate. In calling Timarchus a woman, Aschines suggests that not only is he not masculine enough, but he is a danger to other mens’ masculinity. Timarchus is a kinaidos since he is a womanly male and demonstrated that he was only focused on his own pleasure in his constant pursue of money to feed his addictions. Overall, Aeschines’ argument that Timarchus should no longer be allowed to be a speaker is based on the fact that Timarchus is not masculine enough to even be a citizen.